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Publications by Action Members

Further publications can be found in the Bibliography produced by the Action.

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Publications 2020

Bergmann, Eirikur. Neo-Nationalism: The Rise of Nativist Populism. E-book, Palgrave MacMillan, 2020.

Butter, Michael. The Nature of Conspiracy Theories. Translated by Sharon Howe, Polity, 2020.

Butter, Michael. “Verschwörungstheorien im Zeitalter des Internets” [„Conspiracy Theories in the Internet Age“] Thema Vorarlberg, vol. 56, March 2020, p. 24. Accessed 10 March 2020.

Butter, Michael, and Peter Knight, editors. The Routledge Handbook of Conspiracy Theories. Routledge, 2020.

Daniel, Lauren, and David J. Harper. “The Social Construction of Conspiracy Beliefs: A Q-Methodology Study of How Ordinary People Define them and Judge their plausibility.” Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 2020, pp. 1-22. Taylor & Francis Online,

Dyrendal, Asbjørn. “Conspiracy Beliefs about Jews and Muslims in Norway.” The Shifting Boundaries of Prejudice. Antisemitism and Islamophobia in Contemporary Norway, edited by Christhard Hoffmann and Vibeke Moe, Scandinavian University Press, 2020, pp. 187-210.

Harambam, Jaron. Contemporary Conspiracy Culture: Truth and Knowledge in an Era of Epistemic Instability. Routledge, 2020.

Publications 2019

Butter, Michael. “Die Methode Ganser” [“The Ganser Method“]. Republik, 13 April 2019, Accessed 10 March 2020.

Butter, Michael. “’This Beast in the Shape of a Man’: Right-Wing Populism, White Masculinity, and the Transnational Heroization of Donald Trump.” Heroism as a Global Phenomenon in Contemporary Culture, edited by Barbara Korte, Simon Wendt and Nicole Falkenhayner, Routledge, 2019, pp. 114-31.

Butter, Michael. “Professional Amateur: Trump and Twitter.” Simplify, simplify! Brevity, Plainness and Their Complications in American Literature and Culture: Festschrift for Bernd Engler on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday, edited by Isabell Klaiber, Oliver Scheiding and Jan Stievermann, Ferdinand Schöningh, 2019, pp. 215-29.

Butter, Michael. “Verschwörungs(theorie)panik – ‘Filter Clash’ zweier Öffentlichkeiten” [Conspiracy (theory) Panic – ‘Filter Clash’ between Two Publics]. Deutungsmacht von Zeitdiagnosen: Interdisziplinäre Perspektive [Power of Interpretation of Time Diagnoses: Interdisciplinary Perspective] edited by Heiner Hastedt, Transcript Verlag, 2019, pp. 197-211.

Butter, Michael. “Von Verschwörungstheorien zu Verschwörungsgerüchten” [„From Conspiracy Theories to Conspiracy Rumors“]. Macht im Netz: Von Cybermobbing bis zum Überwachungsstaat, edited by Philippe Wampfler, Reclam, 2019, pp. 100-3.

Butter, Michael. “Wenn Dunkle Mächte Ungehindert Walten” [“When Dark Forces Rule Unchallenged“]. VSAO Journal, no. 3, June 2019, pp. 32-3.

Butter, Michael, and Peter Knight. “The History of Conspiracy Theory Research: A Review and Commentary.” Conspiracy Theories and the People Who Believe Them, edited by Joseph E. Uscinski, Oxford UP, 2019, pp. 33-46.

Camilo, Eduardo. “A encenação cinematográfica da distopia nas teorias da conspiração (Francis Ford Coppola, John Carpenter e Richard Donner)” [“The Cinematographic Staging of Dystopias in Conspiracy Theories (Francis Ford Coppola, John Carpenter and Richard Donner)”]. Imaginários distópicos: metáforas e ficções [Dystopian Imaginary: Metaphors and Fictions], edited by João Carlos Correia, Anabela Gradim and Ricardo Morais. LabcomBooks, 2019, pp. 153-66.

Douglas, Karen M., et al. “Understanding Conspiracy Theories.” Advances in Political Psychology, vol. 40, 2019, pp. 3-35. Wiley Online Library,

Dyrendal, Asbjørn and Terje Emberland. Hva er konspirasjonsteorier? [A Very Short Introduction to Conspiracy Theories]. Oslo Universitetsforlaget, 2019.

Gjoneska, Biljana, et al. “Bound to the Group and Blinded by the Leader: Ideological Leader–Follower Dynamics in a Trust Economic Game.” Royal Society Open Science, vol. 6, 2019,

Harambam, Jaron, and Stef Aupers. “From the Unbelievable to the Undeniable: Epistemological Pluralism, or how Conspiracy Theorists Legitimate their Extraordinary Truth Claims.” European Journal of Cultural Studies, 2019, pp.1-19. SAGE Journals,

Jolley, Daniel, et al. “Belief in Conspiracy Theories and Intentions to Engage in Everyday Crime.” British Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 58, 2019, pp. 534-49. Wiley Online Library,

Jolley, Daniel, et al. “Exposure to Intergroup Conspiracy Theories Promotes Prejudice which Spreads across Groups.” British Journal of Psychology, vol. 111, 2019, pp. 17-35.

Libman, Alexander, and Björn Vollan. “Anti-Western Conspiracy Thinking in China and Russia: Empirical Evidence and its Link to Expectations of Collusion.” Homo Oeconomicus, vol. 36, 2019, pp. 135-63.

Shnirelman, Victor. “The Russian Orthodoxy and a Conspiracy Theory: A Contemporary Discourse.” Kirchliche Zeitgeschichte [Contemporary Church History], vol. 32, no. 1, 2019, pp. 87-101.

Shnirelman, Victor. “’Respectable Xenophobia:’ Science Fiction and Conspiracy.” The Post-Soviet Politics of Utopia: Language, Fiction and Fantasy in Modern Russia, edited by Mikhail Suslov and Per-Arne Bodin, I.B. Tauris, 2019, pp. 175-200.

Publications 2018

Astapova, Anastasiya, and Vasil Navumau. “Veyshnoria: A Fake Country in the Midst of Real Information Warfare.” Journal of American Folklore, vol. 131, no. 522, 2018, pp. 435-43. ResearchGate,

Aupers, Stef, and Jaron Harambam. “Rational Enchantments: Conspiracy Theory between Secular Scepticism and Spiritual Salvation.” Handbook of Conspiracy Theory and Contemporary Religion, edited by Asbjørn Dyrendal, David G. Robertson and Egil Asprem, Brill, 2018, pp. 48-69.

Bergmann, Eirikur. Conspiracy and Populism: The Politics of Misinformation. Palgrave Macmillan, 2018.

Butter, Michael. “Die Angst vor Dunklen Mächten Ist Uralt” [„The Fear of Dark Powers Is Ancient“]. GEO, no. 9, Sept. 2018, pp. 128-9.

Butter, Michael. “Nichts ist wie es scheint” – Über Verschwörungstheorien [“Nothing is as it seems” – On Conspiracy Theories]. Suhrkamp/Insel, 2018.

Butter, Michael. “Wider Chaos und Kontingenz: Über den Einfluss von Verschwörungstheorien” [“Against Chaos and Contingency: About the Influence of Conspiracy Theories“]. Forschung & Lehre, no. 8, 2018, pp. 680-2.

Camilo, Eduardo J., et al., editors. Sobre Suspeita e Culturas da Desconfiança. Fundamentos e Prática [On Suspicion and Cultures of Mistrust. Fundamentals and Practices]. Minerva Coimbra, 2018.

Douglas, Karen M., and Robbie M. Sutton. “Why Conspiracy Theories Matter: A Social Psychological Analysis.” European Review of Social Psychology, vol. 29, 2018, pp. 256-98. Taylor & Francis Online,

Dyrendal, Asbjørn, et al. “The Role of Conspiracy Mentality and Paranormal Beliefs in Predicting Conspiracy Beliefs Among Neopagans.” International Journal for the Study of New Religions, vol. 8, no. 1, 2018, pp. 73-97.

Dyrendal, Asbjørn, et al., editors. Handbook of Conspiracy Theory and Contemporary Religion. Brill, 2018.

Dyrendal, Asbjørn. “Konspirasjonsteori i undervisningen” [“Conspiracy Theory in Teaching”]. Religion og livssyn, vol. 3, 2018, pp. 42-8.

Green, Ricky, and Karen M. Douglas. “Anxious Attachment and Belief in Conspiracy Theories.” Personality and Individual Differences, vol. 125, 2018, pp. 30-7. ScienceDirect,

Imhoff, Roland, and Pia Lamberty. “Die Geheimniswitterer.“ Fake oder Fakt? Wissenschaft, Wahrheit und Vertrauen, edited by Carsten Könneker, Springer, 2018, pp. 165-76.

Imhoff, Roland, and Pia Lamberty. “How Paranoid are Conspiracy Believers? Towards a More Fine-Grained Understanding of the Connect and Disconnect between Paranoia and Belief in Conspiracy Theories.” European Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 48, 2018, pp. 909-26.

Imhoff, Roland, et al. “Using Power as a Negative Cue: How Conspiracy Mentality Affects Epistemic Trust in Sources of Historical Knowledge.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol. 44, 2018, pp. 1364-79.

Jolley, Daniel, et al. “Blaming a Few Bad Apples to Save a Threatened Barrel: The System-Justifying Function of Conspiracy Theories.” Political Psychology, vol. 39, no. 2, 2018, pp. 465-78. Wiley Online Library,

Krouwel, Andre, et al. “Does Extreme Political Ideology Predict Conspiracy Beliefs, Economic Evaluations and Political Trust? Evidence from Sweden.” Journal of Social and Political Psychology, vol. 5, no. 2, 2018, pp. 435-62, Accessed 9 March 2020.

Lamberty, Pia, and Roland Imhoff. “Powerful Pharma and its Marginalized Alternatives: Effect of Individual Differences in Conspiracy Mentality on Attitudes towards Medical Approaches.” Social Psychology, vol. 49, 2018, pp. 255-70.

Lantian, Anthony, et al. “Stigmatized Beliefs: Conspiracy Theories, Anticipated Negative Evaluation of the Self, and Fear of Social Exclusion.” European Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 48, no. 7, 2018, pp. 939–54. Wiley Online Library,

Lantian, Anthony. Croyez vous aux théories du complot? [Do You Believe in Conspiracy Theories?]. Coédition PUG, 2018.

Robertson, David G. and Asbjørn Dyrendal. “Conspiracy Theories and Religion: Superstition, Seekership, and Salvation.” Who Believes in Conspiracy Theories and Why?, edited by Joseph Uscinski, Oxford University Press, 2018, pp. 411-21.

Van Prooijen, Jan-Willem, and Karen M. Douglas. “Belief in Conspiracy Theories: Basic Principles of an Emerging Research Domain.” European Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 48, 2018, pp. 897-908. Wiley Online Library,

Van Prooijen, Jan-Willem, Jaap Staman and Andre Krouwel. “Increased conspiracy beliefs among ethnic and Muslim minorities.” Applied Cognitive Psychology, vol. 32, no. 5, 2018, pp. 661-7.

Ilya Yablokov. Fortress Russia: Conspiracy Theories in the Post-Soviet World. Polity, 2018.

Publications 2017

Astapova, Anastasiya. “In Search for Truth: Surveillance Rumors and Vernacular Panopticon in Belarus.” Journal of American Folklore, vol. 130, no. 517, 2017, pp. 276-304. JSTOR,

Butter, Michael. “Dunkle Komplotte: Zur Geschichte und Funktion von Verschwörungstheorien” [“Dark Plots: On the History and Function of Conspiracy Theories”]. Politikum, vol. 3, 2017, pp. 4-14.

Butter, Michael. “Verschwörungstheorien im Internet” [“Conspiracy Theories on the Internet”]. Deutschland & Europa, vol. 74, 2017, pp. 36-41. Accessed 10 March 2020.

Butter, Michael. “Was sind Verschwörungstheorien?” [“What are Conspiracy Theories?“] Das Milieu, 15 March 2017, Accessed 10 March 2020.

Douglas, Karen M., and Ana C. Leite. “Suspicion in the Workplace: Organizational Conspiracy Theories and Work-Related Outcomes.” British Journal of Psychology, vol. 108, no. 3, 2017, pp. 486-506. Wiley Online Library,

Douglas, Karen M., Chee Siang Ang, and Farzin Deravi. “Reclaiming the Truth.” The Psychologist, vol. 30, 2017, pp. 36-42. The Psychologist,

Douglas, Karen M., Robbie M. Sutton, and Aleksandra Cichocka. “The Psychology of Conspiracy Theories.” Current Directions in Psychological Science, vol. 26, no. 6, 2017, pp. 538-42. SAGE Journals,

Harambam, Jaron, and Stef Aupers. “‘I Am Not a Conspiracy Theorist’: Relational Identifications in the Dutch Conspiracy Milieu.” Cultural Sociology, vol. 11, no. 1, 2017, pp. 113-29. SAGE Journals,

Harambam, Jaron. “De/politisering van de Waarheid.” Sociologie, vol. 13, no. 1, 2017, pp. 73-92.

Imhoff, Roland, and Pia Lamberty. “Too Special to Be Duped: Need for Uniqueness Motivates Conspiracy Beliefs.” European Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 47, 2017, pp. 724-34.

Jolley, Daniel, and Karen M. Douglas. “Prevention Is Better Than Cure: Addressing Anti-Vaccine Conspiracy Theories.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, vol. 47, no. 8, 2017, pp. 459-69. Wiley Online Library,

Krouwel, Andre, et al. “Does Extreme Political Ideology Predict Conspiracy Beliefs, Economic Evaluations and Political Trust? Evidence from Sweden.” Journal of Social and Political Psychology, vol. 5, no. 2, 2017, pp. 435-62. Journal of Social and Political Psychology,

Lantian, Anthony, et al. “‘I Know Things They Don’t Know!’ The Role of Need for Uniqueness in Belief in Conspiracy Theories.” Social Psychology, vol. 48, no. 2, 2017, pp. 160-73. hogrefe,

Van Prooijen, Jan-Willem, and Karen Douglas. “Conspiracy Theories as Part of History: The Role of Societal Crisis Situations.” Memory Studies, vol. 10, no. 3, 2017, pp. 323-33. SAGE Journals,

Van Prooijen, Jan-Willem, Karen Douglas, and Clara De Inocencio. “Connecting the Dots: Illusory Perception Predicts Belief in Conspiracies and the Supernatural.” European Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 48, no. 3, 2017, pp. 320-35. Wiley Online Library,

Publications 2016 

Butter, Michael, and Peter Knight. “Bridging the Great Divide: Conspiracy Theory Research for the 21st Century.” Diogenes, 2016, pp. 1-13. SAGE Journals,

Douglas, Karen M., et al. “Someone Is Pulling the Strings: Hypersensitive Agency Detection and Belief in Conspiracy Theories.” Thinking and Reasoning, vol. 22, no. 1, 2016, pp. 57-77. Kent Academic Repository,

Lantian, Anthony, et al. “Measuring Belief in Conspiracy Theories: Validation of a French and English Single-Item Scale.” International Review of Social Psychology, vol. 29, no. 1, 2016, pp. 1-14. International Review of Social Psychology,